Syllabus for the
National Private Pilot Licence
(Self Launching Motor Glider)
Section 1 Introduction
Section 2 - The NPPL (SLMG) Course
Section 3 - Theoretical Knowledge Syllabus
Section 4 - Flight Training Syllabus
Section 5 - SLMG Specific Exercises
Section 6 Advice to Instructors
Section 7 Record of Flight Training
Designed and produced by the NPPL (SLMG) Instructing and Examining Panel with reference to the AOPA NPPL (SEP) syllabus
© NPPL SLMG Syllabus 26 April 2002
Section 1 Introduction
With the introduction of JAR FCL in the UK, the National Private Pilots Licence (NPPL) has been developed as a stand alone, sub-ICAO recreational licence limited to UK National airspace separate from the JAA licensing structure. The NPPL Licensing Group (NPLG) administers the NPPL.
This syllabus is designed for use during a training course for the NPPL (SLMG).
The NPPL (SLMG) syllabus is designed so that the pilots under training are:
· Provided with the experience, the competence in flying and the theoretical knowledge demanded by the ground and flight tests for the initial issue of a NPPL.
· Able to use the motor gliders and facilities of the private flying environment within the privileges of the licence, ratings and qualifications
· Made aware of how to operate in a safe and responsible manner, and with an awareness of their own limitations
The following definitions apply to this document:
General Skills Test. Applicants for the NPPL have to demonstrate their ability to perform procedures and manoeuvres in an aircraft for an examiner to assess their competency to hold an NPPL.
Navigation Skills Test. Applicants for the NPPL will be required to successfully execute a planned navigation test flight with an examiner prior to undertaking the qualifying solo cross country flight.
Qualifying Solo Cross Country Flight. Ab-initio applicants for the NPPL must consolidate the NPPL training course by planning and conducting a solo cross country flight of a defined distance that involves landing at and returning from another airfield.
· Flying Manual for the NPPL¹
· Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Flying Instructors Manual
· Ground Training Manuals (eg. the AFE PPL series)
· The Training Aircraft Flight Manual/Pilots Operating Handbook
· Safety Equipment Manufacturers Recommendations & Instruction Leaflets
· Aeronautical Charts 1:500 000
· The ANO (Air Navigation Order)
· LASORS (Licensing, Administration, Standardisation, Operating Requirements & Safety
· JAR-FCL (Joint Aviation Requirement Flight Crew Licensing)
· National AIP (Aeronautical Information Publication)
· AICs (Aeronautical Information Circulars)
· CAP 85 A guide to aviation Law, Flight Rules and Procedures
· CAP413 Radio Telephony Manual
· CAA GA Safety Sense Leaflets²
· Accident Information Bulletins
¹ Currently unavailable
² Available on CD-ROM
Useful contact addresses, including those of the Civil Aviation Authority, the British
Gliding Association and the Popular Flying Association are listed in LASORS Section A, Appendix E.
Section 2 The NPPL (SLMG) Course
The objectives of the NPPL (SLMG) course are that student pilots are given adequate theoretical knowledge and flying training to ensure that they are capable of safely operating an aircraft whilst flying in weather conditions appropriate to the visual flight rules.
Acceptance for Training. Before being accepted for training, the student should be informed of the medical requirements for solo and for the application for the NPPL.
Minimum Age. First solo 16 yrs. Issue of NPPL 17 yrs.
Medical Requirements. A certificate of fitness from a GP, equivalent to the DVLA Group 2 professional driving medical standards, is required for solo flying or for passenger carrying. It may be possible for individuals who cannot meet the DVLA Group 2 standards to operate as a solo pilot only with a certificate of fitness equivalent to the DVLA Group 1 standards.
Training Aircraft. An adequate training aircraft must be provided by the flying or gliding club and maintained to the appropriate BCAR standards. The types of self launching motor glider accepted as appropriate for training for the NPPL (SLMG) shall be approved by the NPPL (SLMG) Instructing and Examining Panel.
Training Airfields. Training for the NPPL (SLMG) shall be conducted at appropriately approved airfields.
Instruction. Instruction for the NPPL (SLMG) must be carried out by a holder of either the SLMG PPL flying instructor rating or the JAR TMG flying instructor rating.
Course of Training. Ab-initio students should complete a minimum course of flying training totaling 32 hours, excluding the General Skill test and the Navigation Skill test.
Record of Training. An individual record of training for the NPPL (SLMG) must be maintained for each student and retained by the flying training organisation for 5 years. Particular emphasis should be placed on recording emergency procedure training. The student should sign the record of training at the end of each phase to acknowledge that all the items in the syllabus for that phase have been taught. On completion of training, the students logbook should be signed by the students CFI or his representative as a true record of the completed training.
In the first instance, view the NPLG website. For NPPL SLMG specific
enquiries, view the NPPL (SLMG) FAQs on the British
Gliding Association website www.gliding.co.uk
Section 3 Theoretical Knowledge Syllabus
The theoretical examinations for the NPPL (SLMG) are currently the JAR-FCL PPL written theoretical examinations. In due course, it may be possible for NPPL students to take NPPL specific theoretical examinations using computer based testing (CBT).
The JAR-FCL PPL theoretical syllabus covers the following subjects:
· Aviation Law & Operational Procedures
· Human Performance and Limitations
· Navigation & Radio Aids
· Aircraft (General) & Principles of Flight
· Flight Performance & Planning
· JAR-FCL Communications (PPL)
These subjects should be covered
by use of lectures and by a course of directed study.
Section 4 Flight Training Syllabus
The flying training section of the NPPL (SLMG) course will be covered by the exercises listed below, although the exercises will not necessarily be given in the order shown. To assist students who may wish to complete a JAR-FCL PPL in the future, the exercise numbering corresponds to the exercises conducted for the JAR-FCL PPL. However, the depth of coverage and time spent on each exercise will be appropriate to the NPPL course. A summary of the NPPL minimum flight training time is tabulated on page 7.
Summary of Flying Exercises in the NPPL (SLMG) Flight Training Syllabus
Exercise No. Exercise Description
1 Familiarisation with the aircraft
1E Emergency drills
2 Preparation for and action after flight
3 Air Experience
4 Effects of controls¹
6 Straight and level flight
9 Medium turns
10A Slow flight
11A Spin avoidance
12 Take-off and climb
13 The Circuit, Approach and landing
12E/13E Emergency procedures (as appropriate)
14 First solo
15 Advanced turning
16 Forced landing without power¹
17 Precautionary landing
18A Pilot navigation
18B Navigation at lower levels
19 Instrument appreciation
Revision for the Navigation and General Skills Tests
¹ SLMG specific exercises apply that are additional to those in the instructor manual
Sorry folks I still have some formatting to do on this section, please page down to the next section
Minimum Flight Training Time for the NPPL (SLMG) Flight Training Syllabus
Exercise No. Dual
Details of Exercise
1 ) Familiarisation with the a/c
1B ) Emergency drills
2 ) Prep. for/after flight
3 ) 1.30 - 1.30 - 1.30 Air experience
4 ) Effects of controls ¹
5 ) Taxying
5B ) - - Taxying emergencies
6 1.00 - 2.30 - 2.30 Straight & level flight
7 .45 - 3.15 - 3.15 Climbing
8 .45 - 4.00 - 4.00 Descending ¹
9 .45 - 4.45 - 4.45 Turning
10A .30 - 5.15 - 5.15 Slow flight
10B 1.00 - 6.15 - 6.15 Stalling
11 .30 - 6.45 - 6.45 Spin avoidance
12 1.15 - 8.00 - 8.00 Take-off/climb to down-wind
13 1.15 9.15 - 9.15 Circuit approach & landing
12E/13E .30 - 9.45 - 9.45 Emergencies during Take-off
14 - .15 9.45 .15 10.00 First solo
12/13 1.00 2.15 10.45 2.30 13.15 Consolidation on circuit
14B .45 1.00 11.30 3.30 15.00 Leaving circuit, local area,
compass turns, circuit rejoining
15 1.00 .45 12.30 4.15 16.45 Advanced turning
16 2.00 .45 14.30 5.00 19.30 Forced landings without
17 1.00 15.30 5.00 20.30 Precautionary landings and
operations at minimum level
18A/B/E 4.30 4.00 20.00 9.00 29.00 Navigation, map reading
19 1.00 - 21.00 9.00 30.00 Instrument appreciation
Revision 1.00 1.00 22.00 10.00 32.00 Revision as required
Navigation Flight Test -to be conducted prior to the Qualifying solo cross-country 1.00 (or as required)
Skill Test -to be undertaken on completion of all the training 1.00 (or as required)
¹SLMG with flap may require additional dual training time during this exercise
Section 5 SLMG Specific Exercises
Some flight exercises for the NPPL (SLMG) are specific to Self Launching Motor Gliders and are naturally not included in the available PPL Flying Instructors Manuals. The following SLMG specific exercises are to be included in the NPPL flying training syllabus at a point appropriate to the flying exercise number:
Exercise 4 - Effect of Airbrake or Spoiler
Instructors Note: This exercise is to show the effect that airbrake (or spoiler) has on the pitch attitude and to the performance of the aircraft. The reasons for using airbrake (or spoiler) will be covered during subsequent lessons.
Demonstration Part 1. In trimmed level or gliding flight, remove your hands and feet from the flying controls. Point out or remind the student of the location of the airbrake lever. Progressively select ½ to 2/3 airbrake (or spoiler) and note the change of attitude and speed. Close the airbrake (or spoiler) and note the attitude and speed change. Then take control and demonstrate maintaining the attitude and speed while opening and closing the airbrake (or spoiler).
Student Practice. Ask the student to take control and maintain the required attitude and speed while he or she opens, pauses, and then closes the airbrake (or spoiler).
Demonstration Part 2. In level or gliding flight, while maintaining the required attitude, progressively open the airbrake (or spoiler) to 1/2 and note the increased rate of descent. Fully open the airbrake (or spoiler) and note a further increase in the rate of descent. Close the airbrake (or spoiler) and note the reduction in descent rate.
Summary: The airbrake (or spoiler) can affect the pitch attitude and therefore the speed of the aircraft. More significantly, the airbrake (or spoiler) affects the rate of descent of the aircraft. The operational use of airbrake will be covered later.
Instructors Note: During exercise 16 the student will be expected to have an
appreciation of the glide
performance of the aircraft to enable him or her to make appropriate
judgment when gliding to a landing area. Additionally, pilots of
SLMGs will inevitably utilise the aircraft for soaring flight
with the engine stopped. This exercise demonstrates the best glide
performance against a glide flown at an inappropriate speed. The
exercise is best flown in a non-soaring environment.
Demonstration 1. At an appropriate height, note the position above the ground and close the throttle. Fly the aircraft in the straight glide at the best glide speed and note the rate of descent. Having descended approximately 1000, again note the aircraft position.
Demonstration 2. Climb away and then close the throttle at the same position and height above the ground as in as the previous demonstration. Fly the aircraft in the straight glide on approximately the same heading as the previous demonstration, but at, say, 20 kts faster than best glide speed and note the rate of descent. Having descended approximately 1000, again note the aircraft position. Note the shorter distance traveled for a similar height loss.
Summary: The speed of the aircraft significantly affects the glide performance. The operational use of appreciating glide performance will be covered during exercise 16, forced landings without power.
Exercise 16 Stopping and Starting the Engine in Flight
Instructors Note: This exercise has significant airmanship implications! It is, of course, important that the instructor ensures that the student is fully aware of the requirement to remain within gliding range of an airfield with the engine stopped, and to ensure that he or she understands the concept of a height envelope, including a height floor. For example:
3000 Stop the engine
1500 Restart the engine
1000 Exercise height floor. Abandon engine start attempt.
Get established in the glide circuit
This exercise demonstrates the procedure for stopping and starting the engine in flight using normal engine starting for the aircraft type.
Demonstration - Stopping.
Having carefully addressed the airmanship considerations, at an
appropriate height and position (ideally close to an airfield) reduce
the power to allow the engine to cool to the recommended temperature.
Having achieved the recommended temperature, stop the engine as
recommended in the flight manual or pilots notes. Note any post
engine stop requirements, for example electrical power conservation,
propeller adjustment, engine cooling flap closure, etc. If the type
has no recommended engine stopping procedure, the following
guidelines may be appropriate.
After the engine cooling down period:
§ Carb Heat Check Fully Hot
§ Ancillary electrics Off
§ Radio Off
§ Ignition Off
§ Fuel Off
§ Check airspeed
§ Apply the propeller brake, or feather the propeller, or reduce the airspeed until the propeller stops
§ Adopt the normal gliding attitude
§ Radio On
Demonstration Starting. Having addressed the appropriate airmanship
considerations and any pre starting requirements, for example un-feathering the propeller or opening cooling flaps, etc, start the engine as recommended in the flight manual or pilots notes. If the type has no recommended engine starting procedure, the following guideline may be appropriate. If above the minimum height to attempt a start:
· Fuel On
· Choke As required
· Throttle Set
· Ignition On
· Radio Off
· Starter Operate, and when engine starts,
· Choke Off
· Starter Warning Check
· Oil Pressure & Temperature Check
· Carb Heat Cold
· Radio On
Summary: Stopping and starting the engine in flight is a relatively complex procedure and in some types may require the use of flight reference cards.
The priority must always be to FLY the aircraft, and to remain in gliding range of a safe landing area. Switching off the ignition and fuel will prevent the engine running under its own power but the gliding speed will continue to make the propeller rotate due to the windmilling action of the slipstream.
Exercise 16 Windmill Starting the Engine in Flight
Instructors Note: This exercise uses a considerable amount of height, and therefore the airmanship considerations previously described in exercise 16 should again be addressed. This exercise should be carried out close to an airfield.
Consideration should also be given to some older aircraft types with a low Vne the speed required to windmill the propeller may be too close to Vne for safe windmill starting.
It is important that the student is made aware that electrical failure could occur while attempting to start the engine in flight - for example a discharged battery or failed starter motor. This exercise demonstrates the procedure for windmill starting the engine in flight.
Demonstration. Having addressed the airmanship considerations, including an agreed start attempt height floor, fly the aircraft at best glide speed and close to the airfield.
Having noted any pre-starting requirements, carry out a windmill start as recommended in the flight manual or pilots notes. If the type has no recommended procedure for a windmill start but the type is approved for a windmill start, the following procedure may be appropriate:
§ Fuel On
§ Throttle Set as for a ground start
§ Choke As Required
§ Ignition On
§ Radio Off
§ Propeller Unfeather
§ Accelerate to windmill the propeller (speed is type specific)
§ When engine starts, reduce the airspeed
§ Adjust the power setting as required
§ Choke Off
§ Radio On
Summary: The windmilling action of the slipstream can be utilised to start the engine in the event of a failure of the aircraft normal engine starting system. Care must be taken to avoid over-speeding the engine and propeller during the post start recovery. A windmill start attempt will invariably use a significant amount of height.
Section 6 Advice to Instructors
Operational experience of training in Self Launching Motor Gliders within the British Gliding Association has developed the following advice to instructors additional to that contained within the available PPL Flying Instructors Manuals and the Flying Manual for the NPPL:
Gliding Airfields. NPPL (SLMG) flight training may take place alongside winch launched gliding operations. Instructors should ensure that they and their students are fully conversant with the site procedures for ensuring adequate launching separation.
Performance. Some SLMG aircraft types have limited climb performance when compared to other powered aircraft. Instructors should ensure that their students are fully aware of the precautions required in the event of precipitation before take-off, and that they are fully aware of the many factors that can affect take-off and climb performance.
Airbrakes or Spoilers. In many SLMG aircraft types, in the event of a go around or baulked landing it is necessary to move the left hand from the airbrake (or spoiler) lever to the stick and the right hand from the stick to the throttle. All instructors and their students should be fully briefed on the required procedure to change from the approach or landing with airbrake (or spoiler) to the take-off or climb under power. For example:
· Close and lock the airbrake (or spoiler) and adopt the appropriate attitude
· Move the left hand to the control column and then the right hand to the throttle
· Apply power
Carburetor Icing. All pilots should be made aware of carburetor icing during the course of their theoretical and flight training. However, some SLMG aircraft types are less prone to carburetor icing because of design features such as carburetor position and/or air inlet position. It is likely that this has influenced some instructors and students to become complacent about use of carburetor hot air in flight. Instructors should ensure that their students use carburetor hot air on all occasions appropriate to the engine and aircraft type, and are reminded of the primacy aspects of the student noting the use of carburetor heat during the first and every subsequent flight.
It is unlikely that any retractable engine self-launching sailplane
will be appropriate for training for the NPPL (SLMG). Advice on
operating this type of SLMG and on appropriate differences training
can be obtained from the NPPL (SLMG) Instructing and Examining Panel.
Sorry folks I still have some formatting to do on this section, It is only really forms for completion at the end of training sections.
Section 7 Record of Flight Training (Phases 1-4)
Students Phone Number & E-Mail Address:
Flying Training School/Club:
1 Aircraft Familiarisation
1E Emergency Drills
2 Preparation for & Action after Flight
3 Air Experience
4 Effects of Controls
6 Straight & Level Flight
9 Medium Turns
10A Slow Flight
11A Spin Avoidance
Phase 1 Flying Exercises Taught - Student Signature:
12 Takeoff & Climb
13 The Circuit, Approach & Landing
12E/13E Emergency Procedures
14 First Solo
Phase 2 Flying Exercises Taught Student Signature:
12/13 Consolidation of Exercises 12 & 13
14B Consolidation of Exercise 14
Phase 3 Flying Exercises Taught Students Signature:
15 Advanced Turning
16 Forced Landing without Power
17 Precautionary Landing
18A Pilot Navigation
18B Navigation at Lower Levels
18E Navigation Emergencies
19 Instrument Appreciation
Phase 4 Flying Exercises Taught Students Signature:
Date Flight Training
CFI Signature Student Signature
26 April 2002